Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed

Early detection of cholera epidemics to support control in fragile states: estimation of delays and potential epidemic sizes.

December 16, 2020
Related Articles

Early detection of cholera epidemics to support control in fragile states: estimation of delays and potential epidemic sizes.

BMC Med. 2020 Dec 15;18(1):397

Authors: Ratnayake R, Finger F, Edmunds WJ, Checchi F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cholera epidemics continue to challenge disease control, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected states. Rapid detection and response to small cholera clusters is key for efficient control before an epidemic propagates. To understand the capacity for early response in fragile states, we investigated delays in outbreak detection, investigation, response, and laboratory confirmation, and we estimated epidemic sizes. We assessed predictors of delays, and annual changes in response time.
METHODS: We compiled a list of cholera outbreaks in fragile and conflict-affected states from 2008 to 2019. We searched for peer-reviewed articles and epidemiological reports. We evaluated delays from the dates of symptom onset of the primary case, and the earliest dates of outbreak detection, investigation, response, and confirmation. Information on how the outbreak was alerted was summarized. A branching process model was used to estimate epidemic size at each delay. Regression models were used to investigate the association between predictors and delays to response.
RESULTS: Seventy-six outbreaks from 34 countries were included. Median delays spanned 1-2 weeks: from symptom onset of the primary case to presentation at the health facility (5 days, IQR 5-5), detection (5 days, IQR 5-6), investigation (7 days, IQR 5.8-13.3), response (10 days, IQR 7-18), and confirmation (11 days, IQR 7-16). In the model simulation, the median delay to response (10 days) with 3 seed cases led to a median epidemic size of 12 cases (upper range, 47) and 8% of outbreaks ≥ 20 cases (increasing to 32% with a 30-day delay to response). Increased outbreak size at detection (10 seed cases) and a 10-day median delay to response resulted in an epidemic size of 34 cases (upper range 67 cases) and < 1% of outbreaks < 20 cases. We estimated an annual global decrease in delay to response of 5.2% (95% CI 0.5-9.6, p = 0.03). Outbreaks signaled by immediate alerts were associated with a reduction in delay to response of 39.3% (95% CI 5.7-61.0, p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: From 2008 to 2019, median delays from symptom onset of the primary case to case presentation and to response were 5 days and 10 days, respectively. Our model simulations suggest that depending on the outbreak size (3 versus 10 seed cases), in 8 to 99% of scenarios, a 10-day delay to response would result in large clusters that would be difficult to contain. Improving the delay to response involves rethinking the integration at local levels of event-based detection, rapid diagnostic testing for cluster validation, and integrated alert, investigation, and response.

PMID: 33317544 [PubMed - in process]

COVID-19 pandemic, dengue epidemic, and climate change vulnerability in Bangladesh: Scenario assessment for strategic management and policy implications.

December 16, 2020
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COVID-19 pandemic, dengue epidemic, and climate change vulnerability in Bangladesh: Scenario assessment for strategic management and policy implications.

Environ Res. 2021 01;192:110303

Authors: Rahman MM, Bodrud-Doza M, Shammi M, Md Towfiqul Islam AR, Moniruzzaman Khan AS

Abstract
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change impacts also struck by the COVID-19 pandemic. The lockdown measures were ineffective with no sign of flattening the curve. Therefore, the high risk of transmission is evident with an increasing number of affected people. Under this circumstance, a multiple hazards scenario can be developed in this country due to climatic hazards such as cyclones, floods, landslides, heat waves, and the outbreak of infectious diseases such as dengue, cholera, and diarrhoea. The country experiences simultaneously the global pandemic, exceptionally prolonged flood along with the recovery stage from the damages due to the cyclone (Amphan). Therefore, these multiple factors have been putting pressure on losing millions of homes, livelihoods, and agricultural crops. This study aimed to assess the potential impact of a simultaneous strike of climatic hazards and infectious disease outbreaks and their possible strategic management in Bangladesh under different scenarios. A mixed methodological approach was followed in this study including a questionnaire survey, in-depth discussion with experts, and extensive literature review to assess the multi-hazard scenario in a resource-limited setting with high population density. A set of statistical techniques were used to analyze the responses (n = 1590) from different social groups (healthcare professionals, academicians, students, Government and NGO officials, and businessman) under three scenarios. The results revealed the high possibility of aggravating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic if there is a climatic hazard such as flood, cyclone have appeared. The majority of the respondents agreed that the situation will become more devastating if there is another outbreak of diseases such as dengue, cholera, and diarrhoea. The poor and fragile healthcare system of this country cannot bear such unprecedented pressure. The lack of risk assessment and communication, lack of sectoral coordination might restrict the contingency plan of the government. Therefore, considering the unprecedented worst cases a stringent strategic plan for emergency response, short term and long-term management should have to be formulated. Resilience building through proactive planning and implementation of integrated, inclusive and sustainable strategies will be effective to ensure the health and socio-economic security for multi-hazard threats in the country.

PMID: 33069704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

cholera epidemiology; +19 new citations

December 15, 2020

19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

cholera epidemiology

These pubmed results were generated on 2020/12/15

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

cholera epidemiology; +19 new citations

December 15, 2020

19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

cholera epidemiology

These pubmed results were generated on 2020/12/15

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

Use of surveys to evaluate an integrated oral cholera vaccine campaign in response to a cholera outbreak in Hoima district, Uganda.

December 12, 2020
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Use of surveys to evaluate an integrated oral cholera vaccine campaign in response to a cholera outbreak in Hoima district, Uganda.

BMJ Open. 2020 Dec 10;10(12):e038464

Authors: Bwire G, Roskosky M, Ballard A, Brooks WA, Okello A, Rafael F, Ampeire I, Orach CG, Sack DA

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the quality and coverage of the campaign to distribute oral cholera vaccine (OCV) during a cholera outbreak in Hoima, Uganda to guide future campaigns of cholera vaccine.
DESIGN: Survey of communities targeted for vaccination to determine vaccine coverage rates and perceptions of the vaccination campaign, and a separate survey of vaccine staff who carried out the campaign.
SETTING: Hoima district, Uganda.
PARTICIPANTS: Representative clusters of households residing in the communities targeted for vaccination and staff members who conducted the vaccine campaign.
RESULTS: Among 209 households (1274 individuals) included in the coverage survey, 1193 (94%; 95% CI 92% to 95%) reported receiving at least one OCV dose and 998 (78%; 95% CI 76% to 81%) reported receiving two doses. Among vaccinated individuals, minor complaints were reported by 71 persons (5.6%). Individuals with 'some' education (primary school or above) were more knowledgeable regarding the required OCV doses compared with non-educated (p=0.03). Factors negatively associated with campaign implementation included community sensitisation time, staff payment and problems with field transport. Although the campaign was carried out quickly, the outbreak was over before the campaign started. Most staff involved in the campaign (93%) were knowledgeable about cholera control; however, 29% did not clearly understand how to detect and manage adverse events following immunisation.
CONCLUSION: The campaign achieved high OCV coverage, but the surveys provided insights for improvement. To achieve high vaccine coverage, more effort is needed for community sensitisation, and additional resources for staff transportation and timely payment for campaign staff is required. Pretest and post-test assessment of staff training can identify and address knowledge and skill gaps.

PMID: 33303438 [PubMed - in process]

Successive epidemic waves of cholera in South Sudan between 2014 and 2017: a descriptive epidemiological study.

December 6, 2020
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Successive epidemic waves of cholera in South Sudan between 2014 and 2017: a descriptive epidemiological study.

Lancet Planet Health. 2020 Dec;4(12):e577-e587

Authors: Jones FK, Wamala JF, Rumunu J, Mawien PN, Kol MT, Wohl S, Deng L, Pezzoli L, Omar LH, Lessler J, Quilici ML, Luquero FJ, Azman AS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Between 2014 and 2017, successive cholera epidemics occurred in South Sudan within the context of civil war, population displacement, flooding, and drought. We aim to describe the spatiotemporal and molecular features of the three distinct epidemic waves and explore the role of vaccination campaigns, precipitation, and population movement in shaping cholera spread in this complex setting.
METHODS: In this descriptive epidemiological study, we analysed cholera linelist data to describe the spatiotemporal progression of the epidemics. We placed whole-genome sequence data from pandemic Vibrio cholerae collected throughout these epidemics into the global phylogenetic context. Using whole-genome sequence data in combination with other molecular attributes, we characterise the relatedness of strains circulating in each wave and the region. We investigated the association of rainfall and the instantaneous basic reproduction number using distributed lag non-linear models, compared county-level attack rates between those with early and late reactive vaccination campaigns, and explored the consistency of the spatial patterns of displacement and suspected cholera case reports.
FINDINGS: The 2014 (6389 cases) and 2015 (1818 cases) cholera epidemics in South Sudan remained spatially limited whereas the 2016-17 epidemic (20 438 cases) spread among settlements along the Nile river. Initial cases of each epidemic were reported in or around Juba soon after the start of the rainy season, but we found no evidence that rainfall modulated transmission during each epidemic. All isolates analysed had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, closely related to sequences from Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Large-scale population movements between counties of South Sudan with cholera outbreaks were consistent with the spatial distribution of cases. 21 of 26 vaccination campaigns occurred during or after the county-level epidemic peak. Counties vaccinated on or after the peak incidence week had 2·2 times (95% CI 2·1-2·3) higher attack rates than those where vaccination occurred before the peak.
INTERPRETATION: Pandemic V cholerae of the same clonal origin was isolated throughout the study period despite interepidemic periods of no reported cases. Although the complex emergency in South Sudan probably shaped some of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of cases, the full scope of transmission determinants remains unclear. Timely and well targeted use of vaccines can reduce the burden of cholera; however, rapid vaccine deployment in complex emergencies remains challenging.
FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID: 33278375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

COVID-19 Infection: Data Gaps for Diagnostic Laboratory Preparedness and Tasks on Hand.

December 3, 2020
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COVID-19 Infection: Data Gaps for Diagnostic Laboratory Preparedness and Tasks on Hand.

Viral Immunol. 2020 Dec 01;:

Authors: Biswas S, Ghosh P, Chakraborty D, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Saha MK

Abstract
Emergence of the 2019 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) and its spread, with life-threatening outcomes, have caused a pandemic burden worldwide. Studies of emerging diseases under outbreak conditions have focused on the complete spectrum of pathogens, transmissibility, shedding kinetics in relation to infectivity, epidemiological causes, and interventions to control emergence. During the initial stages of an outbreak, laboratory response capacity focuses on expansion of efficient diagnostic tools for rapid case detection, contact tracing, putting epidemiological findings into sources, mode of transmission, and identification of susceptible groups and reservoirs. It is important for public health diagnostic laboratories to have a fundamental knowledge of viral shedding, antibody response kinetics, assay validation, interpretation, and uncertainties of test results. This study reviewed currently published data from available literature on SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared this with data on viral shedding and antibody response kinetics of other human coronaviruses. Also described are current challenges and comments on some biases and significant data gaps that have limited laboratory preparedness to SARS-CoV-2. Consistent documentation of progress and data gaps from standardized reporting of methods utilized, sampling date, details of test results by specimen type, risk assessments, and symptoms can all be used strategically and provide incentives to governments and their partners to prioritize the development, detection, and response to outbreaks.

PMID: 33264056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The quality of drinking and domestic water from the surface water sources (lakes, rivers, irrigation canals and ponds) and springs in cholera prone communities of Uganda: an analysis of vital physicochemical parameters.

December 1, 2020
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The quality of drinking and domestic water from the surface water sources (lakes, rivers, irrigation canals and ponds) and springs in cholera prone communities of Uganda: an analysis of vital physicochemical parameters.

BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 17;20(1):1128

Authors: Bwire G, Sack DA, Kagirita A, Obala T, Debes AK, Ram M, Komakech H, George CM, Orach CG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Water is the most abundant resource on earth, however water scarcity affects more than 40% of people worldwide. Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right and is a United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. Globally, waterborne diseases such as cholera are responsible for over two million deaths annually. Cholera is a major cause of ill-health in Africa and Uganda. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the surface and spring water in cholera endemic communities of Uganda in order to promote access to safe drinking water.
METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out between February 2015 and January 2016 in cholera prone communities of Uganda. Surface and spring water used for domestic purposes including drinking from 27 sites (lakes, rivers, irrigation canal, springs and ponds) were tested monthly to determine the vital physicochemical parameters, namely pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity.
RESULTS: Overall, 318 water samples were tested. Twenty-six percent (36/135) of the tested samples had mean test results that were outside the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended drinking water range. All sites (100%, 27/27) had mean water turbidity values greater than the WHO drinking water recommended standards and the temperature of above 17 °C. In addition, 27% (3/11) of the lake sites and 2/5 of the ponds had pH and dissolved oxygen respectively outside the WHO recommended range of 6.5-8.5 for pH and less than 5 mg/L for dissolved oxygen. These physicochemical conditions were ideal for survival of Vibrio. cholerae.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that surface water and springs in the study area were unsafe for drinking and had favourable physicochemical parameters for propagation of waterborne diseases including cholera. Therefore, for Uganda to attain the SDG 6 targets and to eliminate cholera by 2030, more efforts are needed to promote access to safe drinking water. Also, since this study only established the vital water physicochemical parameters, further studies are recommended to determine the other water physicochemical parameters such as the nitrates and copper. Studies are also needed to establish the causal-effect relationship between V. cholerae and the physicochemical parameters.

PMID: 32680495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phylogenetic Analysis Revealed the Dissemination of Closely Related Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolates in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.

November 28, 2020
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Phylogenetic Analysis Revealed the Dissemination of Closely Related Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolates in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;7(11):ofaa492

Authors: Morita M, Okada K, Yamashiro T, Sekizuka T, Roobthaisong A, Wongboot W, Chantaroj S, Tu ND, Xangsayarath P, Sithivong N, Noilath K, Vongdouangchanh A, Kuroda M, Hamada S, Izumiya H, Ohnssishi M

Abstract
We performed whole-genome sequencing of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, where cholera outbreaks occurred, to determine their genetic lineages. Core genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates located in same lineage without regional clusters, which suggests that closely related strains circulated in Southeast Asia.

PMID: 33244479 [PubMed]

Field Evaluation of Cholkit Rapid Diagnostic Test for Vibrio Cholerae O1 During a Cholera Outbreak in Malawi, 2018.

November 27, 2020
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Field Evaluation of Cholkit Rapid Diagnostic Test for Vibrio Cholerae O1 During a Cholera Outbreak in Malawi, 2018.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;7(11):ofaa493

Authors: Chibwe I, Kasambara W, Kagoli M, Milala H, Gondwe C, Azman AS

Abstract
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for cholera are an important emerging tool for surveillance, yet the currently available tests have several limitations. We assess the performance of a new RDT, Cholkit, during a cholera outbreak in Malawi compared with culture and find a sensitivity of 93.0% (95% CI, 83.0%-98.1%) and a specificity of 95.7% (95% CI, 78.1%-100.0%).

PMID: 33241067 [PubMed]

Impact of a package of diagnostic tools, clinical algorithm, and training and communication on outpatient acute fever case management in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

November 27, 2020
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Impact of a package of diagnostic tools, clinical algorithm, and training and communication on outpatient acute fever case management in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials. 2020 Nov 25;21(1):974

Authors: Salami O, Horgan P, Moore CE, Giri A, Sserwanga A, Pathak A, Basnyat B, Kiemde F, Smithuis F, Kitutu F, Phutke G, Tinto H, Hopkins H, Kapisi J, Swe MMM, Taneja N, Baiden R, Dutta S, Compaore A, Kaawa-Mafigiri D, Hussein R, Shakya SU, Kukula V, Ongarello S, Tomar A, Chadha SS, Walia K, Kelly-Cirino C, Olliaro P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The management of acute febrile illnesses places a heavy burden on clinical services in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Bacterial and viral aetiologies of acute fevers are often clinically indistinguishable and, in the absence of diagnostic tests, the 'just-in-case' use of antibiotics by many health workers has become common practice, which has an impact on drug-resistant infections. Our study aims to answer the following question: in patients with undifferentiated febrile illness presenting to outpatient clinics/peripheral health centres in LMICs, can we demonstrate an improvement in clinical outcomes and reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescription over current practice by using a combination of simple, accurate diagnostic tests, clinical algorithms, and training and communication (intervention package)?
METHODS: We designed a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the impact of our intervention package on clinical outcomes and antibiotic prescription rates in acute febrile illnesses. Available, point-of-care, pathogen-specific and non-pathogen specific (host markers), rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) included in the intervention package were selected based on pre-defined criteria. Nine clinical study sites in six countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Uganda), which represent heterogeneous outpatient care settings, were selected. We considered the expected seasonal variations in the incidence of acute febrile illnesses across all the sites by ensuring a recruitment period of 12 months. A master protocol was developed and adapted for country-specific ethical submissions. Diagnostic algorithms and choice of RDTs acknowledged current data on aetiologies of acute febrile illnesses in each country. We included a qualitative evaluation of drivers and/or deterrents of uptake of new diagnostics and antibiotic use for acute febrile illnesses. Sample size estimations were based on historical site data of antibiotic prescription practices for malarial and non-malarial acute fevers. Overall, 9 semi-independent studies will enrol a minimum of 21,876 patients and an aggregate data meta-analysis will be conducted on completion.
DISCUSSION: This study is expected to generate vital evidence needed to inform policy decisions on the role of rapid diagnostic tests in the clinical management of acute febrile illnesses, with a view to controlling the rise of antimicrobial resistance in LMICs.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04081051 . Registered on 6 September 2019. Protocol version 1.4 dated 20 December 2019.

PMID: 33239106 [PubMed - in process]

Prospective cohort study of child mouthing of faeces and fomites in Dhaka, Bangladesh (CHoBI7 Program).

November 25, 2020
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Prospective cohort study of child mouthing of faeces and fomites in Dhaka, Bangladesh (CHoBI7 Program).

Trop Med Int Health. 2020 08;25(8):976-984

Authors: Parvin T, Minhaj Uddin I, Islam Bhuyian MS, Saxton R, Zohura F, Sultana M, Johura FT, Monira S, Hasan MT, Papri N, Haque MA, Biswas SK, Sack DA, Perin J, Alam M, George CM

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To characterise childhood mouthing and handling behaviours and to assess the association between hand-to-object and object-to-mouth contacts and diarrhoea prevalence in young children in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 494 children under 5 years of age in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study was nested within the randomised controlled trial of the Cholera Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days (CHoBI7) mobile health (mHealth) program. The CHoBI7 mHealth program focuses on promoting handwashing with soap and water treatment to diarrhoea patients and their household members through mobile messages and a single in person visit. Mouthing and handling of faeces and fomites among young children was measured by five-hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Diarrhoea surveillance data was collected monthly for 12 months.
RESULTS: Fifty five percent of caregivers reported that their child put a visibly dirty fomite (object or soil) in their mouth in the past week. Caregivers reported that 50% of children had mouthed visibly dirty objects, 26% had mouthed dirt, and 2% had mouthed faeces. Forty five percent of children were observed mouthing a visibly dirty fomite during structured observation, 40% of children were observed mouthing a visibly dirty object, 10% were observed mouthing soil, and one child (0.2%) was observed mouthing faeces. Mouthing of visibly dirty fomites was highest for children 12-18 months of age with 69% of these children having caregiver reports and 54% having observed events. Children with caregiver reports of mouthing faeces had a significantly higher odds of diarrhoea over the subsequent month (Odds Ratio: 4.54; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.06, 19.48).
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that mouthing of contaminated fomites among young children is frequent in urban environments in Bangladesh, and that mouthing faeces is associated with a significantly higher odds of diarrhoea. Interventions are urgently needed to protect young children from faecal pathogens in their play spaces.

PMID: 32406964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Genomic and Resistance Epidemiology of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Africa: a Systematic Review and Phylogenomic Analyses from a One Health Perspective

November 25, 2020

mSystems. 2020 Nov 24;5(6):e00897-20. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00897-20.

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance (AR) remains a major threat to public and animal health globally. However, AR ramifications in developing countries are worsened by limited molecular diagnostics, expensive therapeutics, inadequate numbers of skilled clinicians and scientists, and unsanitary environments. The epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria, their AR genes, and geographical distribution in Africa are described here. Data were extracted and analyzed from English-language articles published between 2015 and December 2019. The genomes and AR genes of the various species, obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) and NCBI were analyzed phylogenetically using Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) and annotated with Figtree. The geographic location of resistant clones/clades was mapped manually. Thirty species from 31 countries and 24 genera from 41 countries were analyzed from 146 articles and 3,028 genomes, respectively. Genes mediating resistance to β-lactams (including bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M, bla NDM, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla OXA-48/181), fluoroquinolones (oqxAB, qnrA/B/D/S, gyrA/B, and parCE mutations, etc.), aminoglycosides (including armA and rmtC/F), sulfonamides (sul1/2/3), trimethoprim (dfrA), tetracycline [tet(A/B/C/D/G/O/M/39)], colistin (mcr-1), phenicols (catA/B, cmlA), and fosfomycin (fosA) were mostly found in Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and also in Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter baumannii, etc., on mostly IncF-type, IncX3/4, ColRNAI, and IncR plasmids, within IntI1 gene cassettes, insertion sequences, and transposons. Clonal and multiclonal outbreaks and dissemination of resistance genes across species and countries and between humans, animals, plants, and the environment were observed; Escherichia coli ST103, K. pneumoniae ST101, S. enterica ST1/2, and Vibrio cholerae ST69/515 were common strains. Most pathogens were of human origin, and zoonotic transmissions were relatively limited.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance (AR) is one of the major public health threats and challenges to effective containment and treatment of infectious bacterial diseases worldwide. Here, we used different methods to map out the geographical hot spots, sources, and evolutionary epidemiology of AR. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Neisseria meningitis/gonorrhoeae, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, etc., were common pathogens shuttling AR genes in Africa. Transmission of the same clones/strains across countries and between animals, humans, plants, and the environment was observed. We recommend Enterobacter spp. or K. pneumoniae as better sentinel species for AR surveillance.

PMID:33234606 | PMC:PMC7687029 | DOI:10.1128/mSystems.00897-20

Cholera in Haiti - Authors' reply.

November 22, 2020
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Cholera in Haiti - Authors' reply.

Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Dec;8(12):e1470-e1471

Authors: Lee EC, Ternier R, Lessler J, Azman AS, Ivers LC, all authors

PMID: 33220212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cholera in Haiti

November 21, 2020

Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Dec;8(12):e1469. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30450-2.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:33220211 | DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30450-2

Cholera in Haiti

November 21, 2020

Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Dec;8(12):e1468. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30430-7.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:33220210 | DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30430-7

A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin to reduce mortality and improve growth in high-risk young children with non-bloody diarrhoea in low resource settings: the Antibiotics for Children with Diarrhoea (ABCD) trial protocol.

November 20, 2020
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A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin to reduce mortality and improve growth in high-risk young children with non-bloody diarrhoea in low resource settings: the Antibiotics for Children with Diarrhoea (ABCD) trial protocol.

Trials. 2020 Jan 13;21(1):71

Authors: ABCD study team

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoea is a common cause of illness and death among children in low- to middle-income settings. World Health Organization guidelines for the clinical management of acute watery diarrhoea in children focus on oral rehydration, supplemental zinc and feeding advice. Routine use of antibiotics is not recommended except when diarrhoea is bloody or cholera is suspected. Young children who are undernourished or have a dehydrating diarrhoea are more susceptible to death at 90 days after onset of diarrhoea. Given the mortality risk associated with diarrhoea in children with malnutrition or dehydrating diarrhoea, expanding the use of antibiotics for this subset of children could be an important intervention to reduce diarrhoea-associated mortality and morbidity. We designed the Antibiotics for Childhood Diarrhoea (ABCD) trial to test this intervention.
METHODS: ABCD is a double-blind, randomised trial recruiting 11,500 children aged 2-23 months presenting with acute non-bloody diarrhoea who are dehydrated and/or undernourished (i.e. have a high risk for mortality). Enrolled children in Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Pakistan and Tanzania are randomised (1:1) to oral azithromycin 10 mg/kg or placebo once daily for 3 days and followed-up for 180 days. Primary efficacy endpoints are all-cause mortality during the 180 days post-enrolment and change in linear growth 90 days post-enrolment.
DISCUSSION: Expanding the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in high-risk children to include an antibiotic may offer an opportunity to reduce deaths. These benefits may result from direct antimicrobial effects on pathogens or other incompletely understood mechanisms including improved nutrition, alterations in immune responsiveness or improved enteric function. The expansion of indications for antibiotic use raises concerns about the emergence of antimicrobial resistance both within treated children and the communities in which they live. ABCD will monitor antimicrobial resistance. The ABCD trial has important policy implications. If the trial shows significant benefits of azithromycin use, this may provide evidence to support reconsideration of antibiotic indications in the present World Health Organization diarrhoea management guidelines. Conversely, if there is no evidence of benefit, these results will support the current avoidance of antibiotics except in dysentery or cholera, thereby avoiding inappropriate use of antibiotics and reaffirming the current guidelines.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03130114. Registered on April 26 2017.

PMID: 31931848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Algorithm for Screening to Detect Major Depression: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

November 18, 2020
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The Accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Algorithm for Screening to Detect Major Depression: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

Psychother Psychosom. 2020;89(1):25-37

Authors: He C, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, Rice DB, Krishnan A, Wu Y, Sun Y, Imran M, Boruff J, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Ioannidis JPA, Kloda LA, McMillan D, Patten SB, Shrier I, Ziegelstein RC, Akena DH, Arroll B, Ayalon L, Baradaran HR, Baron M, Beraldi A, Bombardier CH, Butterworth P, Carter G, Chagas MHN, Chan JCN, Cholera R, Clover K, Conwell Y, de Man-van Ginkel JM, Fann JR, Fischer FH, Fung D, Gelaye B, Goodyear-Smith F, Greeno CG, Hall BJ, Harrison PA, Härter M, Hegerl U, Hides L, Hobfoll SE, Hudson M, Hyphantis TN, Inagaki M, Ismail K, Jetté N, Khamseh ME, Kiely KM, Kwan Y, Lamers F, Liu SI, Lotrakul M, Loureiro SR, Löwe B, Marsh L, McGuire A, Mohd-Sidik S, Munhoz TN, Muramatsu K, Osório FL, Patel V, Pence BW, Persoons P, Picardi A, Reuter K, Rooney AG, da Silva Dos Santos IS, Shaaban J, Sidebottom A, Simning A, Stafford L, Sung S, Tan PLL, Turner A, van Weert HCPM, White J, Whooley MA, Winkley K, Yamada M, Thombs BD, Benedetti A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Screening for major depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) can be done using a cutoff or the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm. Many primary studies publish results for only one approach, and previous meta-analyses of the algorithm approach included only a subset of primary studies that collected data and could have published results.
OBJECTIVE: To use an individual participant data meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of two PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithms for detecting major depression and compare accuracy between the algorithms and the standard PHQ-9 cutoff score of ≥10.
METHODS: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, Web of Science (January 1, 2000, to February 7, 2015). Eligible studies that classified current major depression status using a validated diagnostic interview.
RESULTS: Data were included for 54 of 72 identified eligible studies (n participants = 16,688, n cases = 2,091). Among studies that used a semi-structured interview, pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.57 (0.49, 0.64) and 0.95 (0.94, 0.97) for the original algorithm and 0.61 (0.54, 0.68) and 0.95 (0.93, 0.96) for a modified algorithm. Algorithm sensitivity was 0.22-0.24 lower compared to fully structured interviews and 0.06-0.07 lower compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Specificity was similar across reference standards. For PHQ-9 cutoff of ≥10 compared to semi-structured interviews, sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 0.88 (0.82-0.92) and 0.86 (0.82-0.88).
CONCLUSIONS: The cutoff score approach appears to be a better option than a PHQ-9 algorithm for detecting major depression.

PMID: 31593971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Oral rehydration solution coverage in under 5 children with diarrhea: a tri-country, subnational, cross-sectional comparative analysis of two demographic health surveys cycles

November 17, 2020

BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 16;20(1):1716. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09811-1.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 3 million children under 5 years in developing countries die from dehydration due to diarrhea, a preventable and treatable disease. We conducted a comparative analysis of two Demographic Health Survey (DHS) cycles to examine changes in ORS coverage in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. These surveys are cross-sectional conducted on a representative sample of the non-institutionalized individuals.

METHODS: The sample is drawn using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design with census enumeration areas, typically, selected first as primary sampling units (PSUs) and then a fixed number of households from each PSU. We examined national and sub-regional prevalence of ORS use during a recent episode of diarrhea (within 2 weeks of survey) using DHSs for 2007-2010 (1st Period), and 2013-2016 (2nd Period). Weighted proportions of ORS were obtained and multivariable- design-adjusted logistic regression analysis was used to obtain Odds Ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and weighted proportions of ORS coverage.

RESULTS: Crude ORS coverage increased from 21.0% (95% CI: 17.4-24.9) in 1st Period to 40.5% (36.5-44.6) in 2nd Period in Zimbabwe; increased from 60.8% (56.1-65.3) to 64.7% (61.8-67.5) in Zambia; and decreased from 72.3% (68.4-75.9) to 64.6% (60.9-68.1) in Malawi. The rates of change in coverage among provinces in Zimbabwe ranged from 10.3% over the three cycles (approximately 10 years) in Midlands to 44.2% in Matabeleland South; in Zambia from - 9.5% in Eastern Province to 24.4% in Luapula; and in Malawi from - 16.5% in the Northern Province to - 3.2% in Southern Province. The aORs for ORS use was 3.95(2.66-5.86) for Zimbabwe, 2.83 (2.35-3.40) for Zambia, and, 0.71(0.59-0.87) for Malawi.

CONCLUSION: ORS coverage increased in Zimbabwe, stagnated in Zambia, but declined in Malawi. Monitoring national and province-level trends of ORS use illuminates geographic inequalities and helps identify priority areas for targeting resource allocation.. Provision of safe drinking-water, adequate sanitation and hygiene will help reduce the causes and the incidence of diarrhea. Health policies to strengthen access to appropriate treatments such as vaccines for rotavirus and cholera and promoting use of ORS to reduce the burden of diarrhea should be developed and implemented.

PMID:33198701 | PMC:PMC7670726 | DOI:10.1186/s12889-020-09811-1

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