Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed

Subscribe to Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed feed Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=cholera epidemiology
Updated: 3 hours 44 min ago

Cholera outbreak investigation, Bhadola, Delhi, India, April-May 2018.

August 17, 2020

Cholera outbreak investigation, Bhadola, Delhi, India, April-May 2018.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 14;:

Authors: Singh A, Gupta R, Dikid T, Saroha E, Sharma NC, Sagar S, Gupta S, Bindra S, Khasnobis P, Jain SK, Singh S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the Gangetic plains of India, including Delhi, cholera is endemic. On 10 May 2018, staff at the north Delhi district surveillance unit identified a laboratory-confirmed cholera outbreak when five people tested positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa serotype in Bhadola. We investigated to identify risk factors and recommend prevention measures.
METHODS: We defined a case as ≥3 loose stools within 24 h in a Bhadola resident during 1 April-29 May 2018. We searched for cases house-to-house. In a 1 : 1 unmatched case control study, a control was defined as an absence of loose stools in a Bhadola resident during 1 April-29 May 2018. We selected cases and controls randomly. We tested stool samples for Vibrio cholerae by culture. We tested drinking water for fecal contamination. Using multivariable logistic regression we calculated adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs.
RESULTS: We identified 129 cases; the median age was 14.5 y, 52% were females, 27% were hospitalized and there were no deaths. Symptoms were abdominal pain (54%), vomiting (44%) and fever (29%). Among 90 cases and controls, the odds of illness were higher for drinking untreated municipal water (aOR=2.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 6.2) and not knowing about diarrhea transmission (aOR=4.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 21.1). Of 12 stool samples, 6 (50%) tested positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa serotype. Of 15 water samples, 8 (53%) showed growth of fecal coliforms.
CONCLUSIONS: This laboratory-confirmed cholera outbreak associated with drinking untreated municipal water and lack of knowledge of diarrhea transmission triggered public health action in Bhadola, Delhi.

PMID: 32797205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Epidemiological and molecular forensics of cholera recurrence in Haiti.

August 14, 2020
Related Articles

Epidemiological and molecular forensics of cholera recurrence in Haiti.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 04;9(1):1164

Authors: Rebaudet S, Moore S, Rossignol E, Bogreau H, Gaudart J, Normand AC, Laraque MJ, Adrien P, Boncy J, Piarroux R

Abstract
Cholera has affected Haiti with damping waves of outbreaks since October 2010. However, mechanisms behind disease persistence during lull periods remain poorly understood. By mid 2014, cholera transmission seemed to only persist in the northern part of Haiti. Meanwhile, cholera appeared nearly extinct in the capital, Port-au-Prince, where it eventually exploded in September 2014. This study aimed to determine whether this outbreak was caused by local undetected cases or by re-importation of the disease from the north. Applying an integrated approach between November 2013 and November 2014, we assessed the temporal and spatial dynamics of cholera using routine surveillance data and performed population genetics analyses of 178 Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical isolates. The results suggest that the northern part of the country exhibited a persisting metapopulation pattern with roaming oligoclonal outbreaks that could not be effectively controlled. Conversely, undetected and unaddressed autochthonous low-grade transmission persisted in the Port-au-Prince area, which may have been the source of the acute outbreak in late-2014. Cholera genotyping is a simple but powerful tool to adapt control strategies based on epidemic specificities. In Haiti, these data have already yielded significant progress in cholera surveillance, which is a key component of the strategy to eventually eliminate cholera.

PMID: 30718586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) Reports: A Basis for Environmental/Epidemiological Surveillance and Infection Control Amongst Environmental Vibrio cholerae.

August 13, 2020
Related Articles

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) Reports: A Basis for Environmental/Epidemiological Surveillance and Infection Control Amongst Environmental Vibrio cholerae.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Aug 06;17(16):

Authors: Igere BE, Okoh AI, Nwodo UU

Abstract
Distribution, investigation, surveillance and control (DISC) of cholera outbreaks in endemic/non-endemic regions has been a concerted approach towards the management of the causal pathogen. Relevant organization, government, health systems and the public have implemented several steps towards controlling the menace, yet pathogen continues to occur with diverse phenotypes/genotypes of high clinical and epidemiological relevance. The study determines antibiotic susceptibility/resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae isolates retrieved from six domestic water sources between March and August 2018. Serological and molecular typing methods (polymerase chain reaction or PCR) were used to confirm the isolates identity. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using six commonly employed antibiotics of V. cholerae according to the recommendation of Clinical Laboratory Standard and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with other relevant antibiotics of investigative epidemiology and infection control, employing both disc diffusion test and PCR gene detection. Samples presumptive counts ranged between 1.10 to 7.91 log10 CFU/mL. Amongst the 759 presumptive isolates retrieved, sixty-one were confirmed as V. cholerae which were further serogrouped as Non-O1/Non-O139 V. cholerae. Various V. cholerae resistant phenotypes/genoytypes were detected vis: carbapenemase (CR-Vc; 31.1%/5.3%). New Delhi Metallobetalactamase (NDM-1-Vc; 23.0%/42.5%), extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL-Vc; 42.6%/blaTEM:86,7%), chloramphenicol resistance (62.3%/Flor: 46.2%}, tetracycline resistance (70.5%/46.7%), AmpC resistance (21.0 (34.4%/56.7%)) and various other resistant genotypes/phenotypes. It was observed that more than 50% of the confirmed V. cholerae isolates possess resistance to two or more antibiotic classes/groups with multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) ranging from 0.031 to 0.5. This observation provides necessary information and updates for surveillance, planning and implementation of control strategies for cholera. It would also encourage decision making, formulation of policy by the government and cholera control authorities.

PMID: 32781601 [PubMed - in process]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Aug 04;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Aug 04;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Aug 03;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Aug 03;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jul 24;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jul 22;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jul 17;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Authors' response.

August 11, 2020

Authors' response.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jul 17;:

Authors: Chatterjee P, Anand T, Singh KJ, Rasaily R, Singh R, Das S, Singh H, Praharaj I, Gangakhedkar RR, Bhargava B, Panda S

PMID: 32773411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Distribution of hygiene kits during a cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo: a process evaluation.

August 8, 2020
Related Articles

Distribution of hygiene kits during a cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo: a process evaluation.

Confl Health. 2020;14:51

Authors: D'Mello-Guyett L, Greenland K, Bonneville S, D'hondt R, Mashako M, Gorski A, Verheyen D, Van den Bergh R, Maes P, Checchi F, Cumming O

Abstract
Background: Cholera remains a leading cause of infectious disease outbreaks globally, and a major public health threat in complex emergencies. Hygiene kits distributed to cholera case-households have previously shown an effect in reducing cholera incidence and are recommended by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) for distribution to admitted patients and accompanying household members upon admission to health care facilities (HCFs).
Methods: This process evaluation documented the implementation, participant response and context of hygiene kit distribution by MSF during a 2018 cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study population comprised key informant interviews with seven MSF staff, 17 staff from other organisations and a random sample of 27 hygiene kit recipients. Structured observations were conducted of hygiene kit demonstrations and health promotion, and programme reports were analysed to triangulate data.
Results and conclusions: Between Week (W) 28-48 of the 2018 cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, there were 667 suspected cholera cases with a 5% case fatality rate (CFR). Across seven HCFs supported by MSF, 196 patients were admitted with suspected cholera between W43-W47 and hygiene kit were provided to patients upon admission and health promotion at the HCF was conducted to accompanying household contacts 5-6 times per day. Distribution of hygiene kits was limited and only 52% of admitted suspected cholera cases received a hygiene kit. The delay of the overall response, delayed supply and insufficient quantities of hygiene kits available limited the coverage and utility of the hygiene kits, and may have diminished the effectiveness of the intervention. The integration of a WASH intervention for cholera control at the point of patient admission is a growing trend and promising intervention for case-targeted cholera responses. However, the barriers identified in this study warrant consideration in subsequent cholera responses and further research is required to identify ways to improve implementation and delivery of this intervention.

PMID: 32760439 [PubMed]

Global Disease Outbreaks Associated with the 2015-2016 El Niño Event.

August 6, 2020
Related Articles

Global Disease Outbreaks Associated with the 2015-2016 El Niño Event.

Sci Rep. 2019 02 13;9(1):1930

Authors: Anyamba A, Chretien JP, Britch SC, Soebiyanto RP, Small JL, Jepsen R, Forshey BM, Sanchez JL, Smith RD, Harris R, Tucker CJ, Karesh WB, Linthicum KJ

Abstract
Interannual climate variability patterns associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon result in climate and environmental anomaly conditions in specific regions worldwide that directly favor outbreaks and/or amplification of variety of diseases of public health concern including chikungunya, hantavirus, Rift Valley fever, cholera, plague, and Zika. We analyzed patterns of some disease outbreaks during the strong 2015-2016 El Niño event in relation to climate anomalies derived from satellite measurements. Disease outbreaks in multiple El Niño-connected regions worldwide (including Southeast Asia, Tanzania, western US, and Brazil) followed shifts in rainfall, temperature, and vegetation in which both drought and flooding occurred in excess (14-81% precipitation departures from normal). These shifts favored ecological conditions appropriate for pathogens and their vectors to emerge and propagate clusters of diseases activity in these regions. Our analysis indicates that intensity of disease activity in some ENSO-teleconnected regions were approximately 2.5-28% higher during years with El Niño events than those without. Plague in Colorado and New Mexico as well as cholera in Tanzania were significantly associated with above normal rainfall (p < 0.05); while dengue in Brazil and southeast Asia were significantly associated with above normal land surface temperature (p < 0.05). Routine and ongoing global satellite monitoring of key climate variable anomalies calibrated to specific regions could identify regions at risk for emergence and propagation of disease vectors. Such information can provide sufficient lead-time for outbreak prevention and potentially reduce the burden and spread of ecologically coupled diseases.

PMID: 30760757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A systematic review of post-harvest interventions for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters.

July 31, 2020

A systematic review of post-harvest interventions for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters.

Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jul 12;745:140795

Authors: Spaur M, Davis BJK, Kivitz S, DePaola A, Bowers JC, Curriero FC, Nachman KE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates.
OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019.
METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach.
RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus.
DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.

PMID: 32731065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Findings from the 2017 HIV estimation round & trend analysis of key indicators 2010-2017: Evidence for prioritising HIV/AIDS programme in India.

July 29, 2020
Related Articles

Findings from the 2017 HIV estimation round & trend analysis of key indicators 2010-2017: Evidence for prioritising HIV/AIDS programme in India.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jun;151(6):562-570

Authors: Sahu D, Kumar P, Chandra N, Rajan S, Shukla DK, Venkatesh S, Nair S, Kumar A, Singh J, Reddy S, Godbole S, Elangovan A, Saha MK, Rai S, Lakshmi PVM, Gambhir T, Ammassari S, Joshi D, Das A, Bakshi P, Chakraborty S, Palkar A, Singh SK, Reddy DCS, Kant S, Pandey A, Vardhana Rao MV

Abstract
Background & objectives: The National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and the ICMR-National Institute of Medical Statistics, the nodal agency for conducting HIV estimations in India, have been generating HIV estimates regularly since 2003. The objective of this study was to describe India's biennial HIV estimation 2017 process, data inputs, tool, methodology and epidemiological assumptions used to generate the HIV estimates and trends of key indicators for 2010-2017 at national and State/Union Territory levels.
Methods: Demographic Projection (DemProj) and AIDS Impact Modules (AIM) of Spectrum 5.63 software recommended by the United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS Global Reference Group on HIV Estimates, Modelling and Projections, were used for generating HIV estimations on key indicators. HIV sentinel surveillance, epidemiological and programme data were entered into Estimation Projection Package (EPP), and curve fitting was done using EPP classic model. Finally, calibration was done using the State HIV prevalence of two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) -3 and -4 and Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS), 2014-2015.
Results: The national adult prevalence of HIV was estimated to be 0.22 per cent in 2017. Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland had the highest prevalence over one per cent. An estimated 2.1 million people were living with HIV in 2017, with Maharashtra estimated to have the highest number. Of the 88 thousand annual new HIV infections estimated nationally in 2017, Telangana accounted for the largest share. HIV incidence was found to be higher among key population groups, especially people who inject drugs. The annual AIDS-related deaths were estimated to be 69 thousand nationally. For all indicators, geographic variation in levels and trends between States existed.
Interpretation & conclusions: With a slow decline in annual new HIV infections by only 27 per cent from 2010 to 2017 against the national target of 75 per cent by 2020, the national target to end AIDS by 2030 may be missed; although at the sub-national level some States have made better progress to reduce new HIV infection. It calls for reinforcement of HIV prevention, diagnosis and treatment efforts by geographical regions and population groups.

PMID: 32719229 [PubMed - in process]

Prevalence and antimicrobial profile of Shigella isolates in a tertiary care hospital of North Karnataka: A 12-year study.

July 29, 2020
Related Articles

Prevalence and antimicrobial profile of Shigella isolates in a tertiary care hospital of North Karnataka: A 12-year study.

Indian J Med Microbiol. 2020 Jan-Mar;38(1):101-108

Authors: Jain PA, Kulkarni RD, Dutta S, Ganavali AS, Kalabhavi AS, Shetty PC, Shubhada C, Hosamani MA, Appannanavar SB, Hanamaraddi DR

Abstract
Context: Shigella is a common cause of bacillary dysentery. Although it is reported worldwide, the majority of the infections are seen in developing countries with Shigella flexneri being the most common isolate. Prevalence of Shigella species and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles vary according to geographic area and season.
Aims: In the present study, the epidemiology and antimicrobial profile of Shigella from stool samples received at our hospital for a period of 12 years (January 2006 to December 2017) was evaluated.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 4578 stool samples were collected from the cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea. Samples were processed for culture and sensitivity according to standard microbiological techniques. The presumptive identification of Shigella species was done using standard conventional biochemical tests and confirmed using antisera.
Results: A total of 189 (4.2%) samples yielded Shigella spp. Isolation of Shigella spp. were more frequent from males (58.2%). S. flexneri was the commonest species isolated (47.6%) followed by Shigella sonnei(11.6%), Shigella dysenteriae (4.2%) and Shigella boydii (2.1%). Non-typeable Shigella was commonly recovered. The isolates showed high resistance to ampicillin (76.7%) and co-trimoxazole (75%) while highest susceptibility was observed to ceftriaxone (79.2%).
Conclusions: S. flexneri was the most prevalent species isolated at this centre. Shigella isolates from the study showed alarming resistance to recommended antibiotics. Non-typeable Shigella accounted for 34.4% isolates. Molecular discrimination between Shigella and Escherichia coli is essential.

PMID: 32719216 [PubMed - in process]

An ethnographic exploration of diarrheal disease management in public hospitals in Bangladesh: From problems to solutions.

July 28, 2020
Related Articles

An ethnographic exploration of diarrheal disease management in public hospitals in Bangladesh: From problems to solutions.

Soc Sci Med. 2020 Jul 10;260:113185

Authors: Biswas D, Hossin R, Rahman M, Bardosh KL, Watt MH, Zion MI, Sujon H, Rashid MM, Salimuzzaman M, Flora MS, Qadri F, Khan AI, Nelson EJ

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal disease is one of the most common causes of hospital admission globally. The barriers that influence guideline-adherent care at resource limited hospitals are poorly defined, especially during diarrheal disease outbreaks. The objective of this study was to characterize challenges faced in diarrheal disease management in resource-limited hospitals and identify opportunities to improve care.
METHODS: The study was conducted during a diarrheal disease outbreak period at ten public district hospitals distributed across Bangladesh. A rapid ethnographic approach included observations and informal interviews with clinicians, staff nurses and patients. In the first phase, observations identified common and unique challenges in diarrheal management at the ten sites. In the second phase, four hospitals were purposively selected for additional ethnographic study. Systematic observations over 420 total hours were collected from patient-clinician interactions (n = 76) and informal interviews (n = 138). Applied thematic analysis identified factors that influenced hospitalbased diarrhea management.
RESULTS: Normalization of guideline deviation was observed at all ten sites, including prescription of non-indicated antibiotics and intravenous (IV) fluids. Conflict between 'what should be done' and 'what can be done' was the most common challenge identified. Clinical assessments and patient treatment plans were established at admission in a median of 2 minutes (n = 76), often without a physical examination (57%; n=43/76). Factors that prevented adherence to clinical guidelines included human resource constraints, conflicts of interests, overcrowding, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation in the emergency department and wards.
CONCLUSION: This study identified challenges in hospital-based management of diarrheal disease and opportunities to improve care in seemingly change-resilient hospital settings. The results reveal important areas for intervention and policy engagement that may have additive benefit for both hospitals and their patients. These interventions include targeting barriers to clean-water, sanitation and hygiene that prevent clinicians from adopting guidelines out of concern for hospital acquired infections.

PMID: 32712557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Achieving coordinated national immunity and cholera elimination in Haiti through vaccination: a modelling study.

July 28, 2020
Related Articles

Achieving coordinated national immunity and cholera elimination in Haiti through vaccination: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Aug;8(8):e1081-e1089

Authors: Lee EC, Chao DL, Lemaitre JC, Matrajt L, Pasetto D, Perez-Saez J, Finger F, Rinaldo A, Sugimoto JD, Halloran ME, Longini IM, Ternier R, Vissieres K, Azman AS, Lessler J, Ivers LC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cholera was introduced into Haiti in 2010. Since then, more than 820 000 cases and nearly 10 000 deaths have been reported. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is safe and effective, but has not been seen as a primary tool for cholera elimination due to a limited period of protection and constrained supplies. Regionally, epidemic cholera is contained to the island of Hispaniola, and the lowest numbers of cases since the epidemic began were reported in 2019. Hence, Haiti may represent a unique opportunity to eliminate cholera with OCV.
METHODS: In this modelling study, we assessed the probability of elimination, time to elimination, and percentage of cases averted with OCV campaign scenarios in Haiti through simulations from four modelling teams. For a 10-year period from January 19, 2019, to Jan 13, 2029, we compared a no vaccination scenario with five OCV campaign scenarios that differed in geographical scope, coverage, and rollout duration. Teams used weekly department-level reports of suspected cholera cases from the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population to calibrate the models and used common vaccine-related assumptions, but other model features were determined independently.
FINDINGS: Among campaigns with the same vaccination coverage (70% fully vaccinated), the median probability of elimination after 5 years was 0-18% for no vaccination, 0-33% for 2-year campaigns focused in the two departments with the highest historical incidence, 0-72% for three-department campaigns, and 35-100% for nationwide campaigns. Two-department campaigns averted a median of 12-58% of infections, three-department campaigns averted 29-80% of infections, and national campaigns averted 58-95% of infections. Extending the national campaign to a 5-year rollout (compared to a 2-year rollout), reduced the probability of elimination to 0-95% and the proportion of cases averted to 37-86%.
INTERPRETATION: Models suggest that the probability of achieving zero transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti with current methods of control is low, and that bolder action is needed to promote elimination of cholera from the region. Large-scale cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti would offer the opportunity to synchronise nationwide immunity, providing near-term population protection while improvements to water and sanitation promote long-term cholera elimination.
FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Good Fund, Institute for Disease Modeling, Swiss National Science Foundation, and US National Institutes of Health.

PMID: 32710864 [PubMed - in process]

High Burden of Non-communicable Diseases among a Young Slum Population in Haiti.

July 28, 2020
Related Articles

High Burden of Non-communicable Diseases among a Young Slum Population in Haiti.

J Urban Health. 2019 12;96(6):797-812

Authors: McNairy ML, Tymejczyk O, Rivera V, Seo G, Dorélien A, Peck M, Petion J, Walsh K, Bolgrien A, Nash D, Pape J, Fitzgerald DW

Abstract
The objective of this study was to characterize the demographics and population health of four slum communities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, including population density and the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Four urban slums were surveyed using a population-representative design between July and October 2016. A multistage cluster area random sampling process was used to identify households and individuals for the survey. Household surveys included rosters of residents, household characteristics, adult and child deaths in the past year, child health, and healthcare access and utilization. Individual surveys of two randomly sampled adults from each household included sociodemographic data, maternal health, and adult health. Additionally, blood pressure, height, weight, and psychological distress were measured by study staff. Data were weighted for complex survey design and non-response. A total of 525 households and 894 individuals completed the survey (96% household and 90% individual response rate, respectively). The estimated population density was 58,000 persons/km2. Across slums, 55% of all residents were female, and 38% were adolescents and youth 10-24 years. Among adults, 58% were female with median age 29 years (22-38). The most common adult illnesses were severe psychological distress (24%), hypertension (20%), history of physical injury/trauma (10%), asthma (7%), history of cholera (4%), and history of tuberculosis (3%). Ten percent of adults had obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), and 7% currently smoked. The most common under-5 diseases during the last 3 months were respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses (50% and 28%, respectively). One-third of households reported needing medical care for a child in the past year but not being able to access it, largely due to financial constraints. Unique features of these slums are a population structure dominated by adolescents and youth, a high proportion of females, and a high burden of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and psychological distress. Screening, diagnostic, and disease management interventions are urgently needed to protect and promote improved population health outcomes in these slum communities.

PMID: 31218502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vibrio cholerae.

July 28, 2020
Related Articles

Vibrio cholerae.

Trends Microbiol. 2019 09;27(9):806-807

Authors: Yoon SH, Waters CM

PMID: 31029488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pages