Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Cholera and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene among Internally Displaced Persons in Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Dec 12;108(1):195-199. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.22-0396. Print 2023 Jan 11.
In disaster situations, cholera outbreaks represent a public health emergency due to their high fatality rates and high spreading risk through camps for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). The aim of this study is to examine water, sanitation, and hygiene attitudes and cholera knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) among people living in resettlement sites in Cabo Delgado, the northernmost province of Mozambique. Between January 1 and March 31, 2022, a cross-sectional survey was conducted by administering a face-to-face interview to IDPs and residents in six relocation sites in Cabo Delgado Province. A total of 440 people were enrolled in the study. Overall, 77.8% (N = 342) were female, 61% (N = 268) were younger than 35 years old, and 60.5% (N = 266) reported primary school to be the highest education level. Seventy-five percent (N = 334) of participants lived with children under 5 years old. Thirty-one percent (N = 140) and 11.8% (N = 52) of the respondents reported, respectively, at least one cholera case and at least one diarrheal-related death among their family members in the previous 2 years. In multivariate analysis, being female, being younger than 35 years old, having attained a higher education level, owning a phone, or having soap at home were factors significantly associated with improved cholera KAP. In severely deconstructed social contexts, continuous education and community sensitization are crucial to achieve and maintain positive cholera prevention attitudes.
Milbank Q. 2022 Dec;100(4):1028-1075. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12588. Epub 2022 Dec 1.
Policy Points The rapid uptake of disadvantage indices during the pandemic highlights investment in implementing tools that address health equity to inform policy. Existing indices differ in their design, including data elements, social determinants of health domains, and geographic unit of analysis. These differences can lead to stark discrepancies in place-based social risk scores depending on the index utilized. Disadvantage indices are useful tools for identifying geographic patterns of social risk; however, indiscriminate use of indices can have varied policy implications and unintentionally worsen equity. Implementers should consider which indices are suitable for specific communities, objectives, potential interventions, and outcomes of interest.
CONTEXT: There has been unprecedented uptake of disadvantage indices such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) to identify place-based patterns of social risk and guide equitable health policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, limited evidence around data elements, interoperability, and implementation leaves unanswered questions regarding the utility of indices to prioritize health equity.
METHODS: We identified disadvantage indices that were (a) used three or more times from 2018 to 2021, (b) designed using national-level data, and (c) available at the census-tract or block-group level. We used a network visualization to compare social determinants of health (SDOH) domains across indices. We then used geospatial analyses to compare disadvantage profiles across indices and geographic areas.
FINDINGS: We identified 14 indices. All incorporated data from public sources, with half using only American Community Survey data (n = 7) and the other half combining multiple sources (n = 7). Indices differed in geographic granularity, with county level (n = 5) and census-tract level (n = 5) being the most common. Most states used the SVI during the pandemic. The SVI, the Area Deprivation Index (ADI), the COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index (CCVI), and the Child Opportunity Index (COI) met criteria for further analysis. Selected indices shared five indicators (income, poverty, English proficiency, no high school diploma, unemployment) but varied in other metrics and construction method. While mapping of social risk scores in Durham County, North Carolina; Cook County, Illinois; and Orleans Parish, Louisiana, showed differing patterns within the same locations depending on choice of disadvantage index, risk scores across indices showed moderate to high correlation (rs 0.7-1). However, spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed clustering, with discrepant distributions of social risk scores between different indices.
CONCLUSIONS: Existing disadvantage indices use varied metrics to represent place-based social risk. Within the same geographic area, different indices can provide differences in social risk values and interpretations, potentially leading to varied public health or policy responses.
J Med Virol. 2022 Nov 24. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28346. Online ahead of print.
With 390 million infections occurring globally and the infection putting half of the world's population at risk, dengue is an illness with potential, life-threatening manifestations such as plasma leakage and fluid retention, severe bleeding, and organ impairment. This disease is already lurking in the various regions of Pakistan, which was recently ravaged by decades' worst flood. With mosquitoes being its eminent transmission source, it is coherent that a country with massive flooding, accumulation of stagnant water, and lack of adequate drainage systems can lead to a dengue outbreak. Pakistan, a low-middle-income country, is still recuperating from the aftershocks of the pandemic, a recent cholera outbreak, and the massive economic destruction they caused, especially in the healthcare sector. Concerningly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has already issued a "second catastrophe" warning for Pakistan in the aftermath of the fatal floods which have caused the destruction of hundreds of health facilities while physicians and medical workers on the ground scramble to combat outbreaks of waterborne and other illnesses. If the spread of dengue isn't contained immediately, it will destroy the healthcare systems across the country and result in massive fatalities. To avoid tragic consequences, the government and concerned authorities must devise plans to launch public health programs aimed at boosting knowledge of the disease, its symptoms, transmission, prevention, and control. In this commentary, we discuss the current spike of dengue virus, epidemiology, transmission patterns, and preventative efforts in the aftermath of Pakistan's disastrous floods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics and Therapeutic Management of Patients with Vibrio Infections, Bay of Biscay, France, 2001-2019
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Dec;28(12). doi: 10.3201/eid2812.220748.
Noncholera vibriosis is a rare, opportunistic bacterial infection caused by Vibrio spp. other than V. cholerae O1/O139 and diagnosed mainly during the hot summer months in patients after seaside activities. Detailed knowledge of circulating pathogenic strains and heterogeneities in infection outcomes and disease dynamics may help in patient management. We conducted a multicenter case-series study documenting Vibrio infections in 67 patients from 8 hospitals in the Bay of Biscay, France, over a 19-year period. Infections were mainly caused by V. alginolyticus (34%), V. parahaemolyticus (30%), non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (15%), and V. vulnificus (10%). Drug-susceptibility testing revealed intermediate and resistant strains to penicillins and first-generation cephalosporins. The acute infections (e.g., those involving digestive disorder, cellulitis, osteitis, pneumonia, and endocarditis) led to a life-threatening event (septic shock), amputation, or death in 36% of patients. Physicians may need to add vibriosis to their list of infections to assess in patients with associated risk factors.
Emergence and Evolutionary Response of Vibrio cholerae to Novel Bacteriophage, Democratic Republic of the Congo<sup>1</sup>
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Dec;28(12):2482-2490. doi: 10.3201/eid2812.220572.
Cholera causes substantial illness and death in Africa. We analyzed 24 toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in 2015-2017 from patients in the Great Lakes region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Strains originating in southern Asia appeared to be part of the T10 introduction event in eastern Africa. We identified 2 main strain lineages, most recently a lineage corresponding to sequence type 515, a V. cholerae cluster previously reported in the Lake Kivu region. In 41% of fecal samples from cholera patients, we also identified a novel ICP1 (Bangladesh cholera phage 1) bacteriophage, genetically distinct from ICP1 isolates previously detected in Asia. Bacteriophage resistance occurred in distinct clades along both internal and external branches of the cholera phylogeny. This bacteriophage appears to have served as a major driver for cholera evolution and spread, and its appearance highlights the complex evolutionary dynamic that occurs between predatory phage and bacterial host.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Dec;28(12):2472-2481. doi: 10.3201/eid2812.212398.
Cholera outbreaks contribute substantially to illness and death in low- and middle-income countries. Cholera outbreaks are associated with several social and environmental risk factors, and extreme conditions can act as catalysts. A social extreme known to be associated with infectious disease outbreaks is conflict, causing disruption to services, loss of income, and displacement. To determine the extent of this association, we used the self-controlled case-series method and found that conflict increased the risk for cholera in Nigeria by 3.6 times and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo by 2.6 times. We also found that 19.7% of cholera outbreaks in Nigeria and 12.3% of outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were attributable to conflict. Our results highlight the value of providing rapid and sufficient assistance during conflict-associated cholera outbreaks and working toward conflict resolution and addressing preexisting vulnerabilities, such as poverty and access to healthcare.
MEDICC Rev. 2022 Oct 31;24(3-4):24-29. doi: 10.37757/MR2022.V24.N3-4.4.
INTRODUCTION: Vibrio cholerae is a microorganism that causes acute diarrheal diseases and cholera, one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality, especially in children under five years old. It is present in many regions and has been isolated from diverse sources such as water, soil and food. Surveillance of this microorganism in Cuba from 1985 through June 1997 showed circulation of non-epidemic non-O1/non-O139 serogroups, but surveillance continued to identify distribution of V. cholerae serotypes and serogroups in the different geographic regions of the country during the following years, due to the risk of introducing cholera-causing serogroups that provoked cholera epidemics in other countries of the region.
OBJECTIVE: Describe the temporal‒spatial distribution of serogroups and serotypes of V. cholerae in Cuba.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included isolates from passive surveillance of V. cholerae in 16 hygiene and epidemiology centers throughout Cuba from July 1997 through December 2019, submitted to the National Reference Laboratory for Acute Diarrheal Diseases of the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute in Havana, Cuba. The timeline was subdivided into three five-year periods and one eight-year period. The centers submitting isolates were grouped into three geographical regions: western, central and eastern Cuba. A total of 1060 V. cholerae isolates were studied, from the 1438 samples sent from 15 Provincial Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology Centers and the Municipal Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology Center of the Isle of Youth Special Municipality. Genus, species and serotype of all specimens were studied and reviewed in the context of the outbreaks of acute diarrheal diseases reported in the country.
RESULTS: All 1060 isolates were confirmed as V. cholerae. In the distribution by time period and region, the highest percentage occurred in the 2012‒2019 period, and the eastern region contributed the most isolates in all periods. Approximately 63.9% (677/1060) were from outbreaks, and in the 2012‒2019 period, the most epidemic-causing isolates came from the western region. Approximately 52.8% (560/1060) were identified as non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, and 47.2% (500/1060) as O1 V. cholerae; of these, 96.4% (482/500) corresponded to Ogawa serotype and 3.6% (18/500) to Inaba. Circulation of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae occurred throughout the entire period. The O1 serogroup began to circulate in 2012 and continued through 2016; however, since 2017, it has not been identified again. In the western region, there were smaller percentages of isolates of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in all periods, except 2012‒2019. In that period, V. cholerae O1 was identified to a lesser degree in the central region.
CONCLUSIONS: Vibrio cholerae circulated in all three Cuban regions during the years studied, with a higher percentage of isolates of the non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, which caused outbreaks or sporadic cases of diarrhea in the eastern region, with the exception of the 2012‒2019 period, when epidemic outbreaks of the O1 serogroup (which causes cholera) occurred in all three regions, with higher percentages in the western region.