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Cholera Infection Risks and Cholera Vaccine Safety in Pregnancy

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2023 May 22;2023:4563797. doi: 10.1155/2023/4563797. eCollection 2023.


INTRODUCTION: Discuss the impact of cholera infection on pregnant women, fetus, and neonates and review the safety of cholera vaccines in pregnancy.

METHODS: This study was carried out as a narrative review during November 2022. A thorough literature review was conducted on the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect. The following parameters were assessed from the included studies: type of cholera vaccine, cholera symptoms, cholera treatment, effect of cholera on pregnancy, effect of cholera treatment on pregnancy, effect of cholera vaccine on pregnancy, risk factors for fetuses and neonates, and prevention of cholera. The authors independently extracted data from the 24 included studies.

RESULTS: Cholera infection is a serious threat on pregnancy as it could lead to increased stillbirths and neonatal death. Fetal death was shown to occur mainly in the third trimester as most of the pregnant women infected with cholera had spontaneous abortions even after controlling for other confounding variables such as maternal age, dehydration level, and vomiting. Neonatal death was attributed mainly to congenital malformations and low Apgar scores with no improvements. Besides, cholera vaccines have shown to be safe in pregnancy and have proven to lower fetal and neonatal malformations among vaccinated compared to nonvaccinated pregnant women.

CONCLUSION: This narrative summarizes the different complications due to cholera infection in pregnancy. It also reviews the safety of cholera vaccine administration in pregnant women.

PMID:37260611 | PMC:PMC10228220 | DOI:10.1155/2023/4563797

Congenital rubella syndrome surveillance in India, 2016-21: Analysis of five years surveillance data

Heliyon. 2023 May 9;9(5):e15965. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15965. eCollection 2023 May.


BACKGROUND: In India, facility-based surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was initiated in 2016 to estimate the burden and monitor the progress made in rubella control. We analyzed the surveillance data for 2016-2021 from 14 sentinel sites to describe the epidemiology of CRS.

METHOD: We analyzed the surveillance data to describe the distribution of suspected and laboratory confirmed CRS patients by time, place and person characteristics. We compared clinical signs of laboratory confirmed CRS and discarded case-patients to find independent predictors of CRS using logistic regression analysis and developed a risk prediction model.

RESULTS: During 2016-21, surveillance sites enrolled 3940 suspected CRS case-patients (Age 3.5 months, SD: 3.5). About one-fifth (n = 813, 20.6%) were enrolled during newborn examination. Of the suspected CRS patients, 493 (12.5%) had laboratory evidence of rubella infection. The proportion of laboratory confirmed CRS cases declined from 26% in 2017 to 8.7% in 2021. Laboratory confirmed patients had higher odds of having hearing impairment (Odds ratio [OR] = 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.6-16.2), cataract (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 5.4-11.2), pigmentary retinopathy (OR = 6.7, 95 CI: 3.3-13.6), structural heart defect with hearing impairment (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.2-12.2) and glaucoma (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.1). Nomogram, along with a web version, was developed.

CONCLUSIONS: Rubella continues to be a significant public health issue in India. The declining trend of test positivity among suspected CRS case-patients needs to be monitored through continued surveillance in these sentinel sites.

PMID:37251844 | PMC:PMC10209330 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15965

Evaluation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variants circulating in Sindh Pakistan

J Pak Med Assoc. 2022 Dec;72(12):2381-2385. doi: 10.47391/JPMA.1942.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of genetically diverse vibrio cholerae variant strains in a rural Sindh district, and to find out the phylogenetic relationship of indigenous vibrio cholerae strains.

METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2014 to May 2016 in Khairpur, Pakistan, and comprised stool samples/rectal swabs collected from the main and city branches of the Khairpur Medical College Teaching Hospital, and the Pir Abdul Qadir Shah Jeelani Institute of Medical Sciences, Gambat. The samples were identified using standard microbiological, biochemical, serological techniques and polymerase chain reaction targeting the ompW gene. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics tool MUMmer 3.2.3 was used to compare indigenous and contemporary vibrio cholerae strains circulating in the province of Sindh. Neighbour-joining tree method was used to construct the phylogenic tree.

RESULTS: Of the 360 samples, 76(21.11%) were found positive for vibrio cholera strains. The species-specific ompW gene was amplified at the correct size of 588bp. The isolates belonged to serogroup Inaba, O1, biotype El Tor. Unique sequences with same genomic coordinates showed that test strains were not similar to the reference sequence. Conserved genome sequences showed that 12 Out of 16 (75%) of the test strains were similar to each Other except the 3 strains isolated from Khairpur and 1 from Karachi. Multiple sequence alignment of the regions translated into protein showed that 13 out of 16 (81.25%) test strains were similar except 2 strains from Khairpur and 1 From Karachi. The phylogenetic tree showed that all isolated strains descended from the same ancestor along with the reference strain.

CONCLUSIONS: Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant existed in Khairpur.

PMID:37246652 | DOI:10.47391/JPMA.1942

Global burden of chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors, 1990-2019: an update from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

EClinicalMedicine. 2023 May;59:101936. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2023.101936.


BACKGROUND: Updated data on chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are vital in their prevention, control, and treatment in the path to achieving the third UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a one-third reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030. We provided global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of CRDs and their attributable risks from 1990 to 2019.

METHODS: Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we estimated mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), prevalence, and incidence of CRDs, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumoconiosis, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis, and other CRDs, from 1990 to 2019 by sex, age, region, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countries and territories. Deaths and DALYs from CRDs attributable to each risk factor were estimated according to relative risks, risk exposure, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level input.

FINDINGS: In 2019, CRDs were the third leading cause of death responsible for 4.0 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 3.6-4.3) with a prevalence of 454.6 million cases (417.4-499.1) globally. While the total deaths and prevalence of CRDs have increased by 28.5% and 39.8%, the age-standardised rates have dropped by 41.7% and 16.9% from 1990 to 2019, respectively. COPD, with 212.3 million (200.4-225.1) prevalent cases, was the primary cause of deaths from CRDs, accounting for 3.3 million (2.9-3.6) deaths. With 262.4 million (224.1-309.5) prevalent cases, asthma had the highest prevalence among CRDs. The age-standardised rates of all burden measures of COPD, asthma, and pneumoconiosis have reduced globally from 1990 to 2019. Nevertheless, the age-standardised rates of incidence and prevalence of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis have increased throughout this period. Low- and low-middle SDI countries had the highest age-standardised death and DALYs rates while the high SDI quintile had the highest prevalence rate of CRDs. The highest deaths and DALYs from CRDs were attributed to smoking globally, followed by air pollution and occupational risks. Non-optimal temperature and high body-mass index were additional risk factors for COPD and asthma, respectively.

INTERPRETATION: Albeit the age-standardised prevalence, death, and DALYs rates of CRDs have decreased, they still cause a substantial burden and deaths worldwide. The high death and DALYs rates in low and low-middle SDI countries highlights the urgent need for improved preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures. Global strategies for tobacco control, enhancing air quality, reducing occupational hazards, and fostering clean cooking fuels are crucial steps in reducing the burden of CRDs, especially in low- and lower-middle income countries.

PMID:37229504 | PMC:PMC7614570 | DOI:10.1016/j.eclinm.2023.101936

Model-Based Estimation of Expected Time to Cholera Extinction in Lusaka, Zambia

Bull Math Biol. 2023 May 19;85(7):55. doi: 10.1007/s11538-023-01149-0.


The developing world has been facing a significant health issue due to cholera as an endemic communicable disease. Lusaka was Zambia's worst affected province, with 5414 reported cases of cholera during the outbreak from late October 2017 to May 12, 2018. To explore the epidemiological characteristics associated with the outbreak, we fitted weekly reported cholera cases with a compartmental disease model that incorporates two transmission routes, namely environment-to-human and human-to-human. Estimates of the basic reproduction number show that both transmission modes contributed almost equally during the first wave. In contrast, the environment-to-human transmission appears to be mostly dominating factor for the second wave. Our study finds that a massive abundance of environmental vibrio's with a huge reduction in water sanitation efficacy triggered the secondary wave. To estimate the expected time to extinction (ETE) of cholera, we formulate the stochastic version of our model and find that cholera can last up to 6.5-7 years in Lusaka if any further outbreak occurs at a later time. Results indicate that a considerable amount of attention is to be paid to sanitation and vaccination programs in order to reduce the severity of the disease and to eradicate cholera from the community in Lusaka.

PMID:37208444 | DOI:10.1007/s11538-023-01149-0

The CDC Domestic Mpox Response - United States, 2022-2023

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 May 19;72(20):547-552. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7220a2.


Monkeypox (mpox) is a serious viral zoonosis endemic in west and central Africa. An unprecedented global outbreak was first detected in May 2022. CDC activated its emergency outbreak response on May 23, 2022, and the outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on July 23, 2022, by the World Health Organization (WHO),* and a U.S. Public Health Emergency on August 4, 2022, by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.† A U.S. government response was initiated, and CDC coordinated activities with the White House, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and many other federal, state, and local partners. CDC quickly adapted surveillance systems, diagnostic tests, vaccines, therapeutics, grants, and communication systems originally developed for U.S. smallpox preparedness and other infectious diseases to fit the unique needs of the outbreak. In 1 year, more than 30,000 U.S. mpox cases were reported, more than 140,000 specimens were tested, >1.2 million doses of vaccine were administered, and more than 6,900 patients were treated with tecovirimat, an antiviral medication with activity against orthopoxviruses such as Variola virus and Monkeypox virus. Non-Hispanic Black (Black) and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons represented 33% and 31% of mpox cases, respectively; 87% of 42 fatal cases occurred in Black persons. Sexual contact among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) was rapidly identified as the primary risk for infection, resulting in profound changes in our scientific understanding of mpox clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and transmission dynamics. This report provides an overview of the first year of the response to the U.S. mpox outbreak by CDC, reviews lessons learned to improve response and future readiness, and previews continued mpox response and prevention activities as local viral transmission continues in multiple U.S. jurisdictions (Figure).

PMID:37200231 | DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm7220a2

Prioritizing interventions for cholera control in Kenya, 2015-2020

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2023 May 17;17(5):e0010928. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010928. Online ahead of print.


Kenya has experienced cholera outbreaks since 1971, with the most recent wave beginning in late 2014. Between 2015-2020, 32 of 47 counties reported 30,431 suspected cholera cases. The Global Task Force for Cholera Control (GTFCC) developed a Global Roadmap for Ending Cholera by 2030, which emphasizes the need to target multi-sectoral interventions in priority cholera burden hotspots. This study utilizes the GTFCC's hotspot method to identify hotspots in Kenya at the county and sub-county administrative levels from 2015 through 2020. 32 of 47 (68.1%) counties reported cholera cases during this time while only 149 of 301 (49.5%) sub-counties reported cholera cases. The analysis identifies hotspots based on the mean annual incidence (MAI) over the past five-year period and cholera's persistence in the area. Applying a MAI threshold of 90th percentile and the median persistence at both the county and sub-county levels, we identified 13 high risk sub-counties from 8 counties, including the 3 high risk counties of Garissa, Tana River and Wajir. This demonstrates that several sub-counties are high level hotspots while their counties are not. In addition, when cases reported by county versus sub-county hotspot risk are compared, 1.4 million people overlapped in the areas identified as both high-risk county and high-risk sub-county. However, assuming that finer scale data is more accurate, 1.6 million high risk sub-county people would have been misclassified as medium risk with a county-level analysis. Furthermore, an additional 1.6 million people would have been classified as living in high-risk in a county-level analysis when at the sub-county level, they were medium, low or no-risk sub-counties. This results in 3.2 million people being misclassified when county level analysis is utilized rather than a more-focused sub-county level analysis. This analysis highlights the need for more localized risk analyses to target cholera intervention and prevention efforts towards the populations most vulnerable.

PMID:37196011 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0010928

The cholera emergency is avoidable

Saudi Med J. 2023 May;44(5):526.



Prevalence and molecular characterization of Entamoeba moshkovskii in diarrheal patients from Eastern India

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2023 May 11;17(5):e0011287. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0011287. eCollection 2023 May.


BACKGROUND: Importance of the amphizoic amoeba Entamoeba moshkovskii is increasing in the study of amoebiasis as a common human pathogen in some settings. Limited studies are found on the genetic and phylogenetic characterization of E. moshkovskii from India; hence remain largely unknown. In this study, we determined the prevalence and characterized the E. moshkovskii isolates in eastern India.

METHODS: A three-year systemic surveillance study among a total of 6051 diarrhoeal patients from ID Hospital and BC Roy Hospital, Kolkata was conducted for E. moshkovskii detection via a nested PCR system targeting 18S rRNA locus. The outer primer set detected the genus Entamoeba and the inner primer pair identified the E. moshkovskii species. The 18S rRNA locus of the positive samples was sequenced. Genetic and phylogenetic structures were determined using DnaSP.v5 and MEGA-X. GraphPad Prism (v.8.4.2), CA, USA was used to analyze the statistical data.

RESULT: 4.84% (95%CI = 0.0433-0.0541) samples were positive for Entamoeba spp and 3.12% (95%CI = 0.027-0.036) were infected with E. moshkovskii. E. moshkovskii infection was significantly associated with age groups (X2 = 26.01, P<0.0001) but not with gender (Fisher's exact test = 0.2548, P<0.05). A unique seasonal pattern was found for E. moshkovskii infection. Additionally, 46.56% (95%CI = 0.396-0.537) were sole E. moshkovskii infections and significantly associated with diarrheal incidence (X2 = 335.5,df = 9; P<0.0001). Sequencing revealed that the local E. moshkovskii strains were 99.59%-100% identical to the prototype (GenBank: KP722605.1). The study found certain SNPs that showed a correlation with clinical features, but it is not necessarily indicative of direct control over pathogenicity. However, SNPs in the 18S rRNA gene could impact the biology of the amoeba and serve as a useful phylogenetic marker for identifying pathogenic E. moshkovskii isolates. Neutrality tests of different coinfected subgroups indicated deviations from neutrality and implied population expansion after a bottleneck event or a selective sweep and/or purifying selection in co-infected subgroups. The majority of FST values of different coinfected subgroups were <0.25, indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation within the subgroups of this geographical area.

CONCLUSION: The findings reveal the epidemiological significance of E. moshkovskii infection in Eastern India as the first report in this geographical area and expose this species as a possible emerging enteric pathogen in India. Our findings provide useful knowledge for further research and the development of future control strategies against E. moshkovskii.

PMID:37167334 | PMC:PMC10218735 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0011287

Infections transmitted by the fecal-oral route: developing a global score

J Travel Med. 2023 May 9:taad069. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taad069. Online ahead of print.


RATIONALE FOR REVIEW: Enteric pathogens circulate widely in low-income countries, exposing residents and travelers to untreated tap water and contaminated foods. A score could enhance awareness for the risk of fecal-oral transmission. A simple score was developed based on the frequency of defecating in the open (country prevalence >1%), occurrence of domestic cholera in the period between 2021 and 2017 (≥1 case in a country in 5 years) and reported typhoid fever cases between 2015 and 2019 (rate >2/105/year).

KEY FINDINGS: Scores were available for 199 of 214 countries; 19% scored 3 (high risk), 47% scored 1 or 2 (moderate risk), and 34% scored 0 (minimal risk). As expected, the percentage of countries scoring 3 was highest in Africa (53%) and lowest in Oceania (0%) and Europe (0%). In contrast, only 2 (4%) countries in Africa scored 0 (Canary Islands and Madeira).

CONCLUSIONS: Travelers, expatriates, and residents should be made aware that tap water and cold beverages are unsuitable for drinking in score 3 countries. The score should help to reduce water- and food-borne illnesses.

PMID:37158467 | DOI:10.1093/jtm/taad069

Population genomics implies potential public health risk of two non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae lineages

Infect Genet Evol. 2023 May 3:105441. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2023.105441. Online ahead of print.


Diarrheal cases caused by non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae have been reported globally. Lineages L3b and L9, characterized as ctxAB-negative and tcpA-positive (CNTP), pose the highest risk and have caused long-term epidemics in different regions worldwide. From 2001 to 2018, two waves (2001-2012 and 2013-2018) of epidemic caused by non-toxigenic V. cholerae occurred in the developed city of Hangzhou, China. In this study, through the integrated analysis of 207 genomes of Hangzhou isolates from these two waves (119 and 88) and 1573 publicly available genomes, we showed that L3b and L9 lineages together caused the second wave as had happened in the first wave, but the dominant lineage shifted from L3b (first wave: 69%) to L9 (second wave: 50%). We further found that the genotype of a key virulence gene, tcpF, in the L9 lineage during the second wave shifted to type I, which may have enhanced bacterial colonization in humans and potentially promoted the pathogenic lineage shift. Moreover, we found that 21% of L3b and L9 isolates had changed to predicted cholera toxin producers, providing evidence that gain of complete CTXφ-carrying ctxAB genes, rather than ctxAB gain in pre-CTXφ-carrying isolates, led to the transition. Taken together, our findings highlight the possible public health risk associated with L3b and L9 lineages due to their potential to cause long-term epidemics and turn into high-virulent cholera toxin producers, which necessitates a more comprehensive and unbiased sampling in further disease control efforts.

PMID:37146742 | DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2023.105441

Cholera and Climate: What do we know?

Rev Med Suisse. 2023 May 3;19(825):845-848. doi: 10.53738/REVMED.2023.19.825.845.


Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Each year, 100'000 people die from cholera. The links between cholera, weather and climate are visible in the seasonality of cholera globally, but evidence to date illustrates that the relationships between them are highly heterogeneous across settings, with differences in both the direction and strength of the associations. Before we can devise evidence-based scenarios on how climate change may influence cholera burden in the future, more detailed case studies, using more robust climate and epidemiological data from across the globe, are needed. In the meantime, provision of sustainable water and sanitation is of the highest priority to offset potential impacts of climate change on cholera.

PMID:37139878 | DOI:10.53738/REVMED.2023.19.825.845

A snap-shot of a diarrheal epidemic in Dhaka due to enterotoxigenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Vibrio cholerae</em> O1 in 2022

Front Public Health. 2023 Apr 14;11:1132927. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1132927. eCollection 2023.


BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae O1 are most common bacterial causes of diarrheal diseases in Bangladesh. This analysis projected distribution of ETEC and V. cholerae O1 among diarrheal patients of icddr,b, Dhaka hospital in two diarrheal peaks of 2022.

METHODOLOGY: Under the 2% systematic surveillance system, stool samples collected from diarrheal patients of icddr,b hospital were cultured and diagnostic testing was done for ETEC and V. cholerae O1. Comparison of positive cases was done between first peak (March-April) and second peak (October-November) in 2022.

RESULTS: A total of 2,937 stool specimens were tested of which 12% were ETEC and 20% were V. cholerae O1. About 40% of the severe dehydration cases were infected with V. cholerae O1. Predominant ETEC enterotoxin type was 'LT/ST' (41%). The LT enterotoxin significantly increased from 13% to 28% in the second peak (p = 0.015). The predominant colonization factors (CFs) on ETEC were CS5 + CS6 (23%), followed by CS6 (15%). CF-positive isolates was significantly higher in the second peak (36%) than in the first peak (22%) (p = 0.043). Total 14% cases were co-infected with ETEC and V. cholerae O1. Significant differences in the distribution of enterotoxin types were observed (p = 0.029) among the co-infection cases.

CONCLUSION: Changing patterns of enterotoxin and CFs observed in ETEC pathogens should be taken into consideration for ETEC vaccine development. Considering cholera and ETEC biannual trends in causing diarrheal epidemics and outbreaks, emphasizes the need for thoughts on combination vaccine strategies for preventing acute watery diarrhea due to the two major bacterial pathogens.

PMID:37124777 | PMC:PMC10140589 | DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1132927

Cholera past and future in Nigeria: Are the Global Task Force on Cholera Control's 2030 targets achievable?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2023 May 1;17(5):e0011312. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0011312. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Understanding and continually assessing the achievability of global health targets is key to reducing disease burden and mortality. The Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) Roadmap aims to reduce cholera deaths by 90% and eliminate the disease in twenty countries by 2030. The Roadmap has three axes focusing on reporting, response and coordination. Here, we assess the achievability of the GTFCC targets in Nigeria and identify where the three axes could be strengthened to reach and exceed these goals.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cholera surveillance data from Nigeria, cholera incidence was calculated and used to model time-varying reproduction number (R). A best fit random forest model was identified using R as the outcome variable and several environmental and social covariates were considered in the model, using random forest variable importance and correlation clustering. Future scenarios were created (based on varying degrees of socioeconomic development and emission reductions) and used to project future cholera transmission, nationally and sub-nationally to 2070. The projections suggest that significant reductions in cholera cases could be achieved by 2030, particularly in the more developed southern states, but increases in cases remain a possibility. Meeting the 2030 target, nationally, currently looks unlikely and we propose a new 2050 target focusing on reducing regional inequities, while still advocating for cholera elimination being achieved as soon as possible.

CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The 2030 targets could potentially be reached by 2030 in some parts of Nigeria, but more effort is needed to reach these targets at a national level, particularly through access and incentives to cholera testing, sanitation expansion, poverty alleviation and urban planning. The results highlight the importance of and how modelling studies can be used to inform cholera policy and the potential for this to be applied in other contexts.

PMID:37126498 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0011312

Implementation considerations in case-area targeted interventions to prevent cholera transmission in Northeast Nigeria: A qualitative analysis

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2023 Apr 28;17(4):e0011298. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0011298. Online ahead of print.


Cholera outbreaks primarily occur in areas lacking adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and infection can cause severe dehydration and death. As individuals living near cholera cases are more likely to contract cholera, case-area targeted interventions (CATI), where a response team visits case and neighbor households and conducts WASH and/or epidemiological interventions, are increasingly implemented to interrupt cholera transmission. As part of a multi-pronged evaluation on whether CATIs reduce cholera transmission, we compared two organizations' standard operating procedures (SOPs) with information from key informant interviews with 26 staff at national/headquarters and field levels who implemented CATIs in Nigeria in 2021. While organizations generally adhered to SOPs during implementation, deviations related to accessing case household and neighbor household selection were made due to incomplete line lists, high population density, and insufficient staffing and materials. We recommend reducing the CATI radius, providing more explicit context-specific guidance in SOPs, adopting more measures to ensure sufficient staffing and supplies, improving surveillance and data management, and strengthening risk communication and community engagement. The qualitative results herein will inform future quantitative analysis to provide recommendations for overall CATI implementation in future cholera responses in fragile contexts.

PMID:37115769 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0011298

A minireview of cholera outbreak in Lebanon - a rising public health concern

Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2023 Mar 25;85(4):879-883. doi: 10.1097/MS9.0000000000000293. eCollection 2023 Apr.


Cholera is a highly contagious illness that can cause severe, acute, watery diarrhea. The WHO and the Lebanese Ministry of Health announced on the 10 October 2022 the re-emergence of Cholera in Lebanon. Data was collected from the Ministry of Public Health in Lebanon, the WHO, news announcements, as well as from online databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, news, conferences, and press releases on the current cholera outbreak. More than 669 confirmed cholera cases and 23 deaths have been reported in Lebanon up until 29 December 2022. The Ministry of Public Health is providing cooperation and support in containing the disease and covering the hospital and treatment expenses for cholera patients. This paper aims to study the epidemiology of cholera, focusing on the most recent cholera outbreak in Lebanon, and to suggest some recommendations that can be followed to fight off this outbreak.

PMID:37113821 | PMC:PMC10129167 | DOI:10.1097/MS9.0000000000000293

Antibiotic-Prescribing Practices for Management of Childhood Diarrhea in 3 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Findings From the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study, 2015-2018

Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Apr 19;76(Supplement_1):S32-S40. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac980.


BACKGROUND: Despite antibiotic prescription being recommended for dysentery and suspected cholera only, diarrhea still triggers unwarranted antibiotic prescription. We evaluated antibiotic-prescribing practices and their predictors among children aged 2-59 months in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study performed in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya.

METHODS: VIDA was a prospective case-control study (May 2015-July 2018) among children presenting for care with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD). We defined inappropriate antibiotic use as prescription or use of antibiotics when not indicated by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with antibiotic prescription for MSD cases who had no indication for an antibiotic, at each site.

RESULTS: VIDA enrolled 4840 cases. Among 1757 (36.3%) who had no apparent indication for antibiotic treatment, 1358 (77.3%) were prescribed antibiotics. In The Gambia, children who presented with a cough (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.21-3.48) were more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic. In Mali, those who presented with dry mouth (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.02-9.73) were more likely to be prescribed antibiotics. In Kenya, those who presented with a cough (aOR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.01-4.70), decreased skin turgor (aOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.02-4.16), and were very thirsty (aOR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.78-9.68) were more likely to be prescribed antibiotics.

CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescription was associated with signs and symptoms inconsistent with WHO guidelines, suggesting the need for antibiotic stewardship and clinician awareness of diarrhea case-management recommendations in these settings.

PMID:37074427 | PMC:PMC10116514 | DOI:10.1093/cid/ciac980

Vibrio cholerae in rural and urban Bangladesh, findings from hospital-based surveillance, 2000-2021

Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 19;13(1):6411. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-33576-3.


With more than 100,000 cases estimated each year, Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest number of people at risk for cholera. Moreover, Bangladesh is formulating a countrywide cholera-control plan to satisfy the GTFCC (The Global Task Force on Cholera Control) Roadmap's goals. With a particular focus on cholera trends, variance in baseline and clinical characteristics of cholera cases, and trends in antibiotic susceptibility among clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae, we used data from facility-based surveillance systems from icddr,b's Dhaka, and Matlab Hospitals from years 2000 to 2021. Female patients comprised 3,553 (43%) in urban and 1,099 (51.6%) in rural sites. Of the cases and most patients 5,236 (63.7%) in urban and 1,208 (56.7%) in the rural site were aged 15 years and more. More than 50% of the families belonged to the poor and lower-middle-class; in 2009 (24.4%) were in urban and in 1,791 (84.2%) were in rural sites. In the urban site, 2,446 (30%) of households used untreated drinking water, and 702 (9%) of families disposed of waste in their courtyard. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of cholera has significantly increased due to waste disposal in the courtyard and the boiling of water has a protective effect against cholera. Rotavirus (9.7%) was the most prevalent co-pathogen among the under-5 children in both sites. In urban sites, the percentage of V. cholerae along with co-existing ETEC and Campylobacter is changing in the last 20 years; Campylobacter (8.36%) and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (7.15%) were the second and third most prevalent co-pathogens. Shigella (1.64%) was the second most common co-pathogen in the rural site. Azithromycin susceptibility increased slowly from 265 (8%) in 2006-2010 to 1485 (47.8%) in 2016-2021, and erythromycin susceptibility dropped substantially over 20 years period from 2,155 (98.4%) to 21 (0.9%). Tetracycline susceptibility decreased in the urban site from 2051 (45.9%) to 186 (4.2%) and ciprofloxacin susceptibility decreased from 2,581 (31.6%) to 1,360 (16.6%) until 2015, then increased 1,009 (22.6%) and 1,490 (18.2%) in 2016-2021, respectively. Since 2016, doxycycline showed 902 (100%) susceptibility. Clinicians need access to up-to-date information on antimicrobial susceptibility for treating hospitalized patients. To achieve the WHO-backed objective of eliminating cholera by 2030, the health systems need to be put under a proper surveillance system that may help to improve water and sanitation practices and deploy oral cholera vaccines strategically.

PMID:37076586 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-023-33576-3

Burden of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever in India

N Engl J Med. 2023 Apr 20;388(16):1491-1500. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2209449.


BACKGROUND: In 2017, more than half the cases of typhoid fever worldwide were projected to have occurred in India. In the absence of contemporary population-based data, it is unclear whether declining trends of hospitalization for typhoid in India reflect increased antibiotic treatment or a true reduction in infection.

METHODS: From 2017 through 2020, we conducted weekly surveillance for acute febrile illness and measured the incidence of typhoid fever (as confirmed on blood culture) in a prospective cohort of children between the ages of 6 months and 14 years at three urban sites and one rural site in India. At an additional urban site and five rural sites, we combined blood-culture testing of hospitalized patients who had a fever with survey data regarding health care use to estimate incidence in the community.

RESULTS: A total of 24,062 children who were enrolled in four cohorts contributed 46,959 child-years of observation. Among these children, 299 culture-confirmed typhoid cases were recorded, with an incidence per 100,000 child-years of 576 to 1173 cases in urban sites and 35 in rural Pune. The estimated incidence of typhoid fever from hospital surveillance ranged from 12 to 1622 cases per 100,000 child-years among children between the ages of 6 months and 14 years and from 108 to 970 cases per 100,000 person-years among those who were 15 years of age or older. Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi was isolated from 33 children, for an overall incidence of 68 cases per 100,000 child-years after adjustment for age.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of typhoid fever in urban India remains high, with generally lower estimates of incidence in most rural areas. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; NSSEFI Clinical Trials Registry of India number, CTRI/2017/09/009719; ISRCTN registry number, ISRCTN72938224.).

PMID:37075141 | DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2209449

Comparison of prevention of parent-to-child HIV transmission programme &amp; national biennial HIV sentinel surveillance data for tracking HIV epidemic in India

Indian J Med Res. 2022 Jun;156(6):742-749. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3311_21.


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) among antenatal women in India has been used to track the epidemic for many years. However, reliable tracking at the local level is not possible as ANC sentinel sites are limited in number and cover a smaller sample size at each site. Prevention of parent-to-child-transmission (PPTCT) programme data has a potential advantage due to better geographical coverage, which could provide more precise HIV case estimates; therefore, we compared HSS ANC data with PPTCT programme data for HIV tracking.

METHODS: Out of the 499 surveillance sites, where HSS and PPTCT programme was being conducted in 2015, 210 sites (140 urban and 70 rural) were selected using a stratified random sampling method. HSS (n=72,981) and PPTCT (n=112,832) data records were linked confidentially. The sociodemographic characteristics of HSS and PPTCT attendees were compared. HIV prevalence from HSS ANC was compared with the PPTCT programme data using Chi-square test. State- and site-level correlation of HIV prevalence was also done. Concordance between HSS and PPTCT HIV positivity was estimated using kappa statistics.

RESULTS: The age distribution of HSS and PPTCT attendees was similar (range: 23 to 27 yr); however, HSS ANC participants were better educated, whereas PPTCT recorded a higher proportion of homemakers. The correlation of HIV prevalence between HSS and PPTCT was high (r=0.9) at the State level and moderate at the site level (r=0.7). The HIV positivity agreement between HSS ANC and PPTCT was good (kappa=0.633). A similar prevalence was reported across 26 States, whereas PPTCT had a significantly lower prevalence than HSS in three States where PPTCT coverage was low. Overall HIV prevalence was 0.31 per cent in HSS and 0.22 per cent in PPTCT (P<0.001).

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: High-quality PPTCT programme data can provide reliable HIV trends in India. An operational framework for PPTCT-based surveillance should be pilot-tested in a phased manner before replacing HSS with PPTCT.

PMID:37056073 | DOI:10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3311_21